Nanotechnology has shown promising aims to contribute to sustainable agriculture. This article explores recent advances in nanotechnology applications in sustainable agriculture, including crop production and defense, focusing on nanofertilizers. Slowrelease fertilizers are believed to have the potential to address most of the conventional fertilization challenges. Nanofertilizers appear as a promising alternative to agricultural chemical fertilizers. Nanofertilizers can play a critical role by reducing the release of nutrients and increasing nutrient use quality. The introduction of nanofertilizers in agriculture is specifically intended to minimize mineral losses in fertilization and increase yields during mineral management and promote the growth of agriculture.