Share of CO2 emissions in Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait from the combustion of fossil fuels: A statistical study


Reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of the main challenges to mitigate the effects of climate change.
The global effects of climate change threaten geographical fluctuations and increase the risks of floods, food
production, transportation, power plants and all energy requirements, making adaptation to these impacts more
difficult and costly in the future. This paper evaluates the average emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from the
combustion of fossil fuels over a time series from 2009-2019. The study area targeted Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait,
as they have the largest amount of production and storage of fossil fuels. Five variables were studied (total annual
emissions, per capita fossil fuel emissions, year-on-year change in CO2 emissions, cumulative emissions and annual
share of emissions compared to global emissions). The results showed that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia topped the
highest annual emission rate of 645.4 million tons for the year 2015, and Kuwait had the highest rate of emissions
per capita of 28.1 tons annually, followed by Saudi Arabia. The annual growth of emissions indicated a turbulent
time series, where Saudi Arabia represented the highest level of emissions from the zero line at a rate of +65.52
million tons, while Iraq had an annual growth rate of 28.71 million tons in 2016 of carbon dioxide. The cumulative
emissions of CO2 were the highest in Saudi Arabia at 14.9 billion tons over the time series. While the share of carbon
dioxide emissions for Saudi Arabia compared to the global share was at a rate of 1.54 %, followed by Iraq at a rate of
0.47 % and finally Kuwait at a rate of 0.29%.