Nanotechnology for sustainable food production

With the global population’s increment, feeding the world is a daunting challenge due to the running out of food and leads to food insecurity of the world. Low habitable lands for agriculture, the low nutritional value of food and soil, diffusion of fertilizer from the grounds, and excess application of fertilizers indirectly lead to the world’s food insecurity. Agriculture as a major economical driving force of most countries, it is essential to find a way out of these food insecurity issues. With the use of limited natural resources, lands, and water that can envisage a sustainable world through agriculture by increasing productivity through the effective use of modern technology. Nanotechnology is the modern platform for agriculture and every industry, which affects a better way to increase the productivity of agriculture by developing efficient nutrient and pest control systems, together with improved crop varieties and fertilizers without harm to the ecosystem. Conventional fertilizer systems used in practice have not met the plant nutrient requirements because of the low Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) of plants. Therefore, the review enlightens the modern nanotechnological innovations on fertilizers which consist of nitrogen as main plant nutrients include micro and macronutrients, that act as nanohybrids, nanocomposite and surface modified nanocarriers; also the contribution of the innovations compared to conventional systems.