There will be higher pressure on global agricultural systems to provide food security for the growing world population with environmental security in the coming years. The chemical fertilizers lead to the loss of nutrients from agricultural fields via leaching and gaseous emissions that create environmental pollution and climate change. Advanced nano-engineering is used to boost sustainable crop production while reducing chemical fertilization’s negative impacts on the environment. Nanotechnology enhances agricultural production by increasing the efficiency of inputs while decreasing the relevant losses due to its wider specific surface area nature of the nanomaterials. The nanomaterials carriers the agrochemicals to increased crop protection by controlled delivery of nutrients. The nano fertilizers lead to higher productivity and nutritional quality of field crops via enhanced nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and decreased nutrient losses. This review summarized the recent attempts and formulation of smart fertilizers and the utilization of nanotechnologies in agriculture, which may help provide solutions for current and future chemical fertilization problems.